#272 – Differences Between ref and out Parameters

Ref and out parameters in C# are implemented in the same way, in the compiled code.  In both cases, a parameter is passed by reference, giving the method called a chance to change the underlying value.

ref and out parameters different purposes:

  • ref parameters are for input/output – a value is passed into a method and a new value is passed out
  • out parameters are for output – a value is passed out of a method

The compiler enforces the following rules:

  • ref parameters
    • A value must be assigned to parameter before method is called
    • Parameter may be referenced inside method before being written to
    • Parameter may be written to before returning from method
  • out parameters
    • A value may be assigned before method is called (but cannot be used inside method)
    • Parameter may not be referenced inside method before being written to
    • Parameter must be written to before returning from method

#270 – Passing a Reference Type by Reference

When you pass a reference type by value to a method, you pass in a reference to the object.  The method can change the object, but can’t change the reference.

        public static void AnnotateMotto(Dog d)
            // Change the dog's motto
            d.Motto = d.Motto + " while panting";

You can also pass a reference type by reference, which means that the method can change not only the contents of the object pointed to, but change the reference, causing it to refer to a different object.

        public static void FindNewFavorite(ref Dog fav)
            fav.Motto = "No longer the favorite";

            foreach (Dog d in AllDogs)
                if (d.Motto.Contains("ball"))
                    fav = d;

Below is an example of calling this method.

            Dog kirby = new Dog("Kirby");
            kirby.Motto = "Retrieve balls";

            Dog jack = new Dog("Jack");
            jack.Motto = "Growl at people";

            Dog myFav = jack;
            Dog.FindNewFavorite(ref myFav);

            Console.WriteLine(myFav.Name);   // Kirby

#269 – Use ref Modifier on Parameters that Are Input/Output

You can use the ref modifier on a parameter to signal that it should be passed by reference.  Instead of passing in a copy of the current value, a reference to the variable is passed into the method.  The method can read or change the current value.  Changes to ref parameters are seen by the calling code when the method returns.

The ref modifier should be used for input/output parameters, when you want to pass data into the method and also receive updated data when the method returns.

        public static bool DoubleBigNumber(ref int aNumber)
            bool didIt = false;

            if (aNumber > 1000)
                aNumber *= 2;
                didIt = true;

            return didIt;

When calling the method, you use the ref modifier for any ref parameters.

            int myNumber = 1200;
            bool didit = NumberHelper.DoubleBigNumber(ref myNumber);

            Console.WriteLine(myNumber);        // Value now 2400