#1,067 – Covariance and Generic Interfaces

Generic interfaces in C# are covariant, provided that their type parameters are constrained with the out keyword.

Let’s assume that we have the following interface.

        public interface FirstAndLast<T>
            T First();
            T Last();

Then assume that we define a generic class that implements this interface:

        public class LineOf<T> : IFirstAndLast<T>
            private Queue<T> theQueue = new Queue<T>();

            public void AddToEnd(T d)

            public void RemoveFromFront(T d)

            public T First()
                return theQueue.Peek();

            public T Last()
                return theQueue.Last();

Great, now we can use this class as follows:

            LineOf<Dog> dogs = new LineOf<Dog>();
            dogs.AddToEnd(new Dog("Lassie"));
            dogs.AddToEnd(new Dog("Rin Tin Tin"));
            Console.WriteLine(dogs.First().ToString() + ", " + dogs.Last().ToString());

            LineOf<BorderCollie> herders = new LineOf<BorderCollie>();
            herders.AddToEnd(new BorderCollie("Kirby"));
            herders.AddToEnd(new BorderCollie("Shep"));
            Console.WriteLine(herders.First().ToString() + ", " + herders.Last().ToString());

At this point, we might want to convert LineOf<BorderCollie> to IFirstAndLast<Dog>, for example we might have a method that returns IFirstAndLast<Dog>.

However, if we do the following, we get a compiler error, saying that we can’t implicitly cast LineOf<BorderCollie> to IFirstAndLast<Dog>:

            IFirstAndLast<Dog> dogLine = herders;

We could do a cast, as shown below. The code now compiles, but the conversion fails at runtime.

            IFirstAndLast<Dog> dogLine = (IFirstAndLast<Dog>)herders;

We want the IFirstAndLast<T> interface to be covariant, i.e. to allow this assignment.  To support this, we just need to add the out keyword in the interface.

        public interface IFirstAndLast<out T>

We can do this because T is only used in this interface as a return value.  Having done this, we can now do the following.  This compiles and the assignment succeeds at runtime.

            IFirstAndLast<Dog> dogLine = herders;



About Sean
Software developer in the Twin Cities area, passionate about .NET technologies. Equally passionate about my own personal projects related to family history and preservation of family stories and photos.

One Response to #1,067 – Covariance and Generic Interfaces

  1. Pingback: #1,148 – When to Use a Generic Covariant Interface | 2,000 Things You Should Know About C#

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: